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Calendar 1: The Romulus Calendar I
The Romulus Calendar I (in use beginning from 753 B.C. until 701? B.C., or as it was dated, from 1 UAC until 53? UAC)
This is the first version of the Republican Calendar that was first put to use.
This is literally the father of all revisions of the Republican Calendar going down to the Revised Julian Calendar over 2,700 years later.
Descendants include the Julian-Roman-1 calendar in the leap year spacing format Julius Caesar envisioned,
the Julian-1 variation using the months counting up from 1 to the end of the month, and the Gregorian calendar that is in use worldwide.
In this first version, the calendar's ten months more-or-less resemble the months that match those of the modern Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Martius became March, still having 31 days. Aprillis became April, still having 30 days. Maius became May, still having 31 days.
Iunius (the letter "J" hadn't been invented yet) became June (or if you wish, Iune or Junius), still having 30 days.
Quintillis, with Quin- meaning five, and originally the fifth month of the year, became Iulius (or Julius if there had been a "J"), then July, still with 31 days, and the seventh month of the year.
Sextilis, with Sex- meaning six, and originally the sixth month of the year, became Augustus, and extended to 31 days, and the eighth month of the year.
The last four months, strangely enough, had the same names on its descending calendars, September still had 30 days and October still had 31 days.
Sept- means seven and Oct- means eight, as they were the seventh and eighth months of the year, and today they're the ninth and tenth months of the year
although Sept- does not match being in the ninth postion of the months of the calendar year, and Oct- does not match being in the tenth position.
In some countries, a version of the Julian calendar was or may still be used today where the Number Change Day, the day the year number incremented by one, fell between March 1 and March 25,
so in this case, Sept- and Oct- would be the seventh and eighth months of the year on those versions of the calendar.
November, with Nov- meaning nine, and originally the ninth month of the year, still had 30 days and was still called November, though it was the eleventh month of the year in later calendars.
December, with Dec- meaning ten, and originally the tenth month of the year, was still called December, though it was the twelfth month of the year in later calendars, it was expanded to 31 days.
The months of January (originally as Ianuarius) and February (originally as Februarius) hadn't been invented until approximately the year 54? UAC, or 700? B.C.E. Instead of these two months, there was a 61 or 62 day period of no months. No days. Nothing!
- This calendar cannot be proleptic, meaning, that it would not made sense if it was extended in either direction into the years it wasn't in existence earlier or employed in later years.
- The days of the months use the Kalends method of counting down inclusively to one to the Nones, Ides, and into the first day of the following month, Kalends.
- The founding of Rome was on April 21, 753 B.C.; meaning that the it was year 1 when using the Roman numbering method of counting years, hence, the founding of Rome was of April 21, 1 UAC.
- Romans used the letters AUC after these dates (in Latin ab urbe condita - from the foundation of the city).
- The equivalent range of the years, 1 through 54 UAC, would be mapped proleptically to the Common Era years 753 through 714 B.C.E., or for Christians as they prefer, 753 through 714 B.C. (Before Christ, in the years before Jesus was conceived and born in what was thought to be in the year 1 B.C. or 1 B.C.E.).
- King Romulus, the first king of Rome, may have invented this calendar around 753 B.C.E.
- Originally, the year had a total of 304 days with six months of 30 days and four with 31 days. Each month began and ended with a new moon. The last day of the previous month was also the first day of the following month, so that same day counted twice in both months. The two months of winter (61 or 62 days) were not counted in any month of this calendar.
- The months on the Republican Calendar:
- Martius 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
- Aprilis 30 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
- Maius 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
- Iunius 30 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
- Quintills 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
- Sextilis 30 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
- September 30 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
- October 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
- November 30 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
- December 30 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
- No Months: 61 or 62 days
Limitations of the Alphabet during this era through the 17th century.
- The letter "J" was not invented until about 1611 (according to the year the 1611 Bible was published), which is why Julius was spelled Ivlivs.
- There was no letter "U" in their alphabet until 1629.
- The original spellings of the months were: Ianvarivs, Febrvarivs, Martivs, Aprilis, Maivs, Ivnivs, Ivlivs, Avgvstvs, September, October, November, December.
Roman Day to Numeric Day of Month Equivalent Chart (753-701? B.C.E.)
|Numeric Day of Month||Mart. Mai. Quin. Oct. (31 days)||Apr. Iun. Sext. Sept. Nov. Dec. (30 days)|
|2||VI Non.||IV Non.|
|3||V Non.||III Non.|
|4||IV Non.||Prid. Non.|
|6||Prid. Non.||VIII Id.|
|8||VIII Id.||VI Id.|
|9||VII Id.||V Id.|
|10||VI Id.||IV Id.|
|11||V Id.||III Id.|
|12||IV Id.||Prid. Id.|
|14||Prid. Id.||XVIII Kal.|
|16||XVII Kal.||XVI Kal.|
|17||XVI Kal.||XV Kal.|
|18||XV Kal.||XIV Kal.|
|19||XIV Kal.||XIII Kal.|
|20||XIII Kal.||XII Kal.|
|21||XII Kal.||XI Kal.|
|22||XI Kal.||X Kal.|
|23||X Kal.||IX Kal.|
|24||IX Kal.||VIII Kal.|
|25||VIII Kal.||VII Kal.|
|26||VII Kal.||VI Kal.|
|27||VI Kal.||V Kal.|
|28||V Kal.||IV Kal.|
|29||IV Kal.||III Kal.|
|30||III Kal.||Prid. Kal.|
- Id. = Idus = Ides
- Non. = Nonae = Nones
- Kal. = Kals = Kalendae
- Prid. = pridie
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