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You are at the section Calendar History

Calendar 4: The Republican Transitional Calendar

The Republican Transitional Calendar (in use only during the year 46 B.C.E., or 708 UAC)

During the middle of the year 708 UAC, Julius Caesar decided that a major reform of the Republican Calendar II is in order.

The year 707 UAC, or 47 B.C.E., would be the final year of the pre-Julian era of the Republican Calendar II.

Before the Julian calendar would begin the following year, some calibration to the calendar needed to be done since the year began just two weeks after the autumnal equinox occurred, resulting in this calendar that was actually used mapping Ianuarius (modern-day January) 1, 46 B.C.E. to the modern-day proleptic Julian calendar in the first part of October in 47 B.C.E., date approximately October 13, 47 B.C.E. To summarize:

Note: Some sources state that the year 46 B.C.E. had anywhere from 442 to 446 extra days for the length of the calendar. For this example, we'll use 445 days.

Ianuarius (modern-day January) 1, 46 B.C.E. Republican Transitional Calendar maps to October 13, 47 B.C.E. proleptic The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar

December 29, 47 B.C.E. The Republican Calendar II maps to October 12, 47 B.C.E. proleptic The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar

There are 80 days between Octoer 13 and December 31 inclusively.

During the first 80 days of the year, some people "repeated" their birthdays in the same year, that is, they made one revolution around the sun on Earth. People born on Ianuarius 1 through Mercedonius 28 inclusive that year repeated their birthdays from Intercalaris Prior 17 through December 29!

Intercalaris Prior 17 through 33: 17 days
Intercalaris Posterior 1 through 34: 34 days
Decemmber 1 through 29: 29 days

With the chaos of the civil wars of the Republic, the Romans in charge forgot to add the intercalary months, resulting in the calendar running way too fast!

This year already was extended from 355 to 378 days by the insertion of Mercedonius between Februarius and Martius. When Caesar, who was a high priest as well as a dictator of Rome, decreed the needed reform, probably in Quintillis (or July in later years), decided to add two extra leap months between November and December, totalling 67 days, to recalibrate the calendar so that December would fall where it should be in late fall to early winter instead of late summer to early fall. This made the following year begin at the right time again: that is, after the winter solstice.

The two extra months were called Intercalaris Prior and Intercalaris Posterior (not "Undecimber" and "Duodecimber"). Their individual lengths are unknown, as were the positions of the Nones and Ides within them.

This year, which was extended to 445 days, and was nicknamed annus confusionis or The Year of Confusion. This made the calendar year the longest in history.

In real time, people born at least 364 days (the first through the 80th days of the year) before the last day of that year during the same year actually passed their first birthdays in solar year time in the last 80 days of the same year! For people born during the three intercalaris months, their birthdates would simply disappear, never to be seen ever again, effectively, resulting in such people being forced to find a new day of the year to celebrate the anniversary of their birthdays. Some might have used a date in 45 B.C.E. that matches the date they were born 365 days before in 46 B.C.E. and celebrated their birthdays on the new dates on the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 calendars.

After this year ended, the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 (not the what is now the proleptic Julian-Roman-1 calendar as Caesar originally envisioned) began.

  1. The Republican Transitional Calendar
    1. The Last Year of Confusion was 46 B.C., or 708 AUC
    2. The year was 445 days long
    3. 67 days were added by adding two intercalary months between November and December
    4. The two intercalary months were Intercalaris Prior and Intercalaris Posterior, or Unidecimber and Duodecimber with unknown lengths, probably 33 and 34 days respectively, with 327 days for the months other than Februarius (which had 24, or 28 - 4), and Mercedonius with 27 days added to bring it up to 445 days. Some scholars state that Februarius had 23 days while Merdeconius had 28 days. We'll use the latter in this example.
    5. Once again, Mercedonius's last five days of the month belong to Februarius when not used to recalibrate the old Roman calendar. This is in order to keep celebrations of festivals lined up to be next to the date of Kalends I of Martius (March 1). We go more into that in another page.
    6. The calendar for 46 B.C. probably looked something like this
      1. Ianuarius 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      2. Februarius 23 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      3. Mercedonius 28 (abolished after this year) (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      4. Martius 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
      5. Aprilis 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      6. Maius 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
      7. Iunius 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      8. Quintills 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
      9. Sextilis 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      10. September 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      11. October 31 (Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
      12. November 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
      13. Intercalaris Prior 33 (temporary intercalaris month) (possibly Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
      14. Intercalaris Posterior 34 (or 33 if Prior had 34) (temporary intercalaris month) (possibly Nones on the 7th, Ides on the 15th)
      15. December 29 (Nones on the 5th, Ides on the 13th)
    7. after this year, the old intercalary month was abolished, and many changes occurred the following year as the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 calendar replaced it the following year.

Roman Day to Numeric Day of Month Equivalent Chart (46 B.C.E.)

Months and Days added just for this year:
Intercalaris Prior (33 days, assuming that Nones is on the 7th since the month is rather long): Kal., VI Non. to Non., VIII Id. to Id., XIX Kal. to prid. Kal. (1st through 33rd)
Intercalaris Posterior (34 days, assuming that Nones is on the 7th since the month is rather long): Kal., VI Non. to Non., VIII Id. to Id., XX Kal. to prid. Kal. (1st through 34th)

Months and Days dropped:
none, but in 45 B.C.E., there will be massive days dropped!

Numeric Day of MonthMart. Mai. Quin. Oct. (31 days)no months (30 days)Apr. Iun. Sext. Sept. Nov. Dec. Ian. (29 days)Feb. (23 days)Mer. (28 days)
1Kal. Kal. Kal. Kal. Kal.
2VI Non. IV Non. IV Non. IV Non. IV Non.
3V Non. III Non. III Non. III Non. III Non.
4IV Non. Prid. Non.Prid. Non.Prid. Non.Prid. Non.
5III Non. Non. Non. Non. Non.
6Prid. Non. VIII Id. VIII Id. VIII Id. VIII Id.
7Non. VII Id. VII Id. VII Id. VII Id.
8VIII Id. VI Id. VI Id. VI Id. VI Id.
9VII Id. V Id. V Id. V Id. V Id.
10VI Id. IV Id. IV Id. IV Id. IV Id.
11V Id. III Id. III Id. III Id. III Id.
12IV Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id.
13III Id. Id. Id. Id. Id.
14Prid. Id. XVIII Kal.XVII Kal. XVI Kal. XVI Kal.
15Id. XVII Kal. XVI Kal. XV Kal. XV Kal.
16XVII Kal. XVI Kal. XV Kal. XIV Kal. XIV Kal.
17XVI Kal. XV Kal. XIV Kal. XIII. Kal.XIII. Kal.
18XV Kal. XIV Kal. XIII. Kal.XII Kal. XII Kal.
19XIV Kal. XIII Kal. XII Kal. XI Kal. XI Kal.
20XIII Kal. XII Kal. XI Kal. X Kal. X Kal.
21XII Kal. XI Kal. X Kal. IX Kal. IX Kal.
22XI Kal. X Kal. IX Kal. VIII Kal. VIII Kal.
23X Kal. IX Kal. VIII Kal. VII Kal. VII Kal.
24IX Kal. VIII Kal. VII Kal. -- VI Kal.
25VIII Kal. VII Kal. VI Kal. -- V Kal.
26VII Kal. VI Kal. V Kal. -- IV Kal.
27VI Kal. V Kal. IV Kal. -- III Kal.
28V Kal. IV Kal. III Kal. -- Prid. Kal.
29IV Kal. III Kal. Prid. Kal.-- --
30III Kal. Prid. Kal.-- -- --
31Prid. Kal.-- -- -- --
  1. Id. = Idus = Ides
  2. Non. = Nonae = Nones
  3. Kal. = Kals = Kalendae
  4. Prid. = pridie

What The Julian/Gregorian Calendar Would Look Like Using Old Julian Calendar Styling

Numeric Day of MonthIan. (January) Mart. (March) Mai. (May) Quin. (July) Sext. (August) Oct. (October) Dec. (December) (31 days) Apr. (April) Iun. (June) Sept. (September) Nov. (November) (30 days) Feb. (February) Leap Years (29 days) Feb. (February) Common Years (28 days)
1Kal. Kal. Kal. Kal.
2VI Non. IV Non. IV Non. IV Non.
3V Non. III Non. III Non. III Non.
4IV Non. Prid. Non.Prid. Non.Prid. Non.
5III Non. Non. Non. Non.
6Prid. Non. VIII Id. VIII Id. VIII Id.
7Non. VII Id. VII Id. VII Id.
8VIII Id. VI Id. VI Id. VI Id.
9VII Id. V Id. V Id. V Id.
10VI Id. IV Id. IV Id. IV Id.
11V Id. III Id. III Id. III Id.
12IV Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id. Prid. Id.
13III Id. Id. Id. Id.
14Prid. Id. XVIII Kal.XVI Kal. XVI Kal.
15Id. XVII Kal. XV Kal. XV Kal.
16XVII Kal. XVI Kal. XIV Kal. XIV Kal.
17XVI Kal. XV Kal. XIII Kal. XIII Kal.
18XV Kal. XIV Kal. XII Kal. XII Kal.
19XIV Kal. XIII Kal. XI Kal. XI Kal.
20XIII Kal. XII Kal. X Kal. X Kal.
21XII Kal. XI Kal. IX Kal. IX Kal.
22XI Kal. X Kal. VIII Kal. VIII Kal.
23X Kal. IX Kal. VII Kal. VII Kal.
24IX Kal. VIII Kal. VI Kal. Mart.VI Kal.
25VIII Kal. VII Kal. VI Kal. V Kal.
26VII Kal. VI Kal. V Kal. IV Kal.
27VI Kal. V Kal. IV Kal. III Kal.
28V Kal. IV Kal. III Kal. Prid. Kal.
29IV Kal. III Kal. Prid. Kal.--
30III Kal. Prid. Kal.-- --
31Prid. Kal.-- -- --
  1. Id. = Idus = Ides, the first day of the month.
  2. Non. = Nonae = Nones, either the fifth or seventh days of the month.
  3. Kal. = Kals = Kalendae, either the 13th or the 15th days of the month.
  4. Prid. = pridie, the last day of the month.
  5. VI Kal. Mart. = the old Roman date when the intercalary month once began, now serves as the proper insertion date of Leap Year Day.
Menu:
Calendar History Main Page Calendar 1: The Romulus Calendar I Calendar 2: The Republican Calendar I Calendar 3: The Republican Calendar II Calendar 4: The Republican Transitional Calendar Calendar 5: The Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar Calendar 6: The Julian-Roman-Transitional-1 Calendar Calendar 7: The Julian-Roman-1 Calendar Calendar 8: The Julian-Kalends-1 Calendar Calendar 9: The Julian-1 Calendar Calendar 10: The Gregorian Calendar Dual Dating Date Confusion Definition of Days on the Calendars Definition of Calendars: Others Old, New and Unknown Styles Leap Year Error on the Julian-Roman-Actual-1 Calendar What Calendars Each Country Was Using Gregorian-Julian Differences By Century New Years Days Addenda Day and Year Measurements Calendar Varieties-Gregorian Calendar Varieties-Julian Calendar Varieties-Other Years Converted From Julian Period Day Lining Up Julian Dates Between Earth and Mars The Martian Calendar of Earth Converting From the Julian Period Date Creating a Julian Period Day Database File Truncating Answers Conversion Between Julian-1 and Gregorian Calendars Create a Calendar Leap Year Day Comparisons Swedish Calendar 1700-1712 Fractions of Years, Etc.
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